Phylum Ochrophyta: brown and golden-brown algae, diatoms, silicoflagellates, and kin, in: Gordon, D.P. Domoic acid, a glutamate analog, is the cause of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans; it also causes death (acute toxicity) or neurologic disease (chronic toxicity) in marine mammals. In the latter case, some centric diatoms, such as Chaetoceros spp., have a life form (cells in a chain with long spiny protuberances called setae) that can clog fish gills and thereby kill fish, but they do not produce any toxins. However, marine toxin seafood diseases are reportable to state health agencies and the CDC as foodborne outbreaks if more than one person becomes ill. (Ed.) The main contamination problems include mussels, clams, and crabs of the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada. Domoic acid interacts with glutamate receptors on nerve cell terminals, causing excitotoxicity that can lead to neuronal cell damage or death from an excessive influx of Ca2+. Taxonomy Published in AlgaeBase WoRMS External Links GenBank (59 nucleotides; 5 proteins) GBIF Citation WoRMS (2014). Hillebrand H, Sommer U (1996). Garrison D.L., Conrad S.M., Eilers P.P., Waldron E.M. 1992. Domoic acid is produced by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia, and is also found in red algae. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Pseudo-nitzschia granii.png 714 × 543; 555 KB. Gray whales, common and short-beaked dolphins, sea lions, harbor seals, sea otters, and pelicans have been poisoned. Upwellings of cold waters bring nutrients and the diatoms to the surface where sunlight may stimulate photosynthesis, replication, and toxin production. Peter M. Rabinowitz, ... Lora E. Fleming, in Human-Animal Medicine, 2010. The toxin has also been shown to cause oxidative injury, mitochondrial damage, and death in neurons. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. First, N excess in comparison to available Si and P relieves DA production from its limitation by N, an absolute requirement of the DA molecule. Amnesic shellfish poisoning results from the ingestion of shellfish containing domoic acid, which is produced by the diatom Pseudonitzschia.1 An outbreak of illnesses caused by this toxin was reported in the Atlantic provinces of Canada in 1987.22 Symptoms included vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, headache, and loss of short-term memory. Scholin C.A., Guilland F., Doucette G.J., Benson S., Busman M., Chavez F.P., Cordaro J., Delong R., De Vogelaere A., Harvey J., Haulena M., Lefebvre K., Lipscomb T., Loscutoff S., Lowenstine L.J., Marin III R., Miller P.E., McLellan W.A., Moeller P.D.R., Powell C.L., Rowles T., Silvagni P., Silver M., Spraker T., Trainer V. & van Dolah F.M. Within the pigmented heterokonts, two major classes or phyla include many toxic species. Diversity and morphology of the species of Pseudo–nitzschia (Bacillariophyta) of the national park Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano, SW Gulf of Mexico. Phytoplankton studies in Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan) revealed three species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia H. Perag. 2. XV, 858 pp. Seven DA congeners have been isolated and identified in minor amounts in both diatom cells and shellfish tissue, including geometric isomers (isodomoic acids D, E, and F and the C5′ diastereomer) (Fig. 1) Cells are narrow, linear, with widely rounded extremities, 23–40 μm long, 2.0–2.7 μm wide, overlapped 1/8–1/11 of the cell length. Flanders Marine Institute - Platform for marine research. Harper, M.A. Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal article › Research › peer-review Mass blooms of P. pungens and P. multiseries were registered in Amurskii Bay in June 1992. In addition to mussels, razor clams, other shellfish, Dungeness crabs, and finfish (especially anchovies and sardines) can also serve as vectors to other species. Currently, 54 species are known, 26 of which have been shown to produced DA. As a result, global attention of DA and its source algae has been paid. 14). (ASP, Pseudo-nitzschia) Mainly caused by domoic acid, a toxin produced by some diatoms. (ASP, Pseudo-nitzschia) Mainly caused by domoic acid, a toxin produced by some diatoms. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] Source of Project funding. NOAA has been working closely with federal, state, tribal, academic, and other partners to respond to this unprecedented harmful algal bloom (HAB). The source of the toxin was contaminated blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) that had been raised in coastal long-line aquaculture systems. Other environmental factors identified as a ecting to Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Three monophyletic classes occur, each shown in a different color. 1, Fig. These efforts have been extended to the early detection and forecasting of Florida red tides (K. brevis) in the Gulf of Mexico, red tides (Alexandrium and Pseudo-Nitzschia) in the Pacific Northwest, and now cyanobacteria in Florida; they are published as the NOAA HAB Bulletin (see link above). PhycoI32:371-381. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Phylogeny of the Bacillariaceae with emphasis on the genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) based on partial LSU … However, a small but increasing number of phytoplankton species – about 90, or 2% of the total – also produce potent toxins, called phycotoxins (or biotoxins). 2000. & … in H. et M. Peragallo, namely, P. pungens (Grun. Abstract. ISBN 0-12-693018-X. in coastal waters of Galicia. (2002). Compared to other Pseudo-nitzschia species it does not produce high levels of domoic acid. Livingstone, S. Gallacher, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. pp. Pseudo-nitzschia is a marine planktonic diatom genus containing some species capable of producing the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), which is responsible for the neurological disorder known as amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Wildlife species that have been poisoned include grey whales, different species of dolphins, sea lions, seals, walruses, sea otters, cormorants, and pelicans. As a result, human poisoning is now rare, but fish-eating marine species are still commonly poisoned. Affected mussels off the eastern Canadian coast killed hippocampal neurons in humans. license cc-by-nc copyright Thessen, Anne. Species identification was based on detailed morphological observation using a transmission electron microscope and also molecular data on large subunit (LSU) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) with NCBI … 14.2) produced by several species of Pseudonitzschia diatoms as well as Chondria armata. Similar lesions were produced experimentally in nonhuman primates and rodents. Some of the most severely affected individuals also had difficulty learning. Details of the amnesic shellfish toxins (ASTs) are summarized in Table 8. Rev. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The several isomers of domoic acid (Figure 38.4) are structural analogs of neuroexcitatory amino acids, such as glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and kainic acid. Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha is a domoic-acid-producing, pennate diatom. Total abundances of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. 14. Hasle, and P. pseudodelicatissima Hasle. People, fish-eating birds, and marine mammals have been poisoned by domoic acid. The toxic diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia occurs as one of the most derived or advanced pennate diatom genera. Domoic acid has also been implicated in the deaths of marine mammals and birds in the Pacific Northwest of the US coast. Want to see an alphabetical list of ALL species within this taxa group? Pseudo-nitzschia: H.Peragallo, 1900: accepted genus name : Species group names. J. Phycol. As a potent glutamate receptor agonist, DA can show neuroexcitatory glutaminergic activity and bind with high affinity to specific receptor proteins in neuronal cells, leading to an overstimulation of receptors and a prolonged depolarization of the cells. Under low iron conditions, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Production by Pseudo-nitzschia Diatoms Background Most phytoplankton (microscopic one-celled algae) are beneficial, forming the base of the food web and providing oxygen to the atmosphere. 1; Pl. PubChem. Blooms of some species of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia produce a neurotoxin that accumulates in shellfish, which can cause illness and even death in humans who eat them. Pseudo-nitzschia seriata: This Species currently has 1 taxonomic siblings (listed below) and an expanded tree of 1 members (self + siblings + sub-siblings). heimii, P. cf. Beale A.M. & Work T.M. Severe neurological symptoms, such as short-term memory loss, were experienced by older people, reportedly lasting in some cases for a number of years. When shellfish consume phytoplankton, they can bioconcentrate the toxin leading to a potential health hazard for humans who consume the contaminated shellfish. In the future, these bulletins could be used to provide early warnings that threatening local HABs are likely to develop as well as track their progress. Pseudo-nitzschia: A Proposal Lim, P.-T Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. The following articles are merged in Scholar. J. Phycol. Note that the relative abundance scale is the same on each plot. Photomicrograph of Pseudo-nitzschia, showing the silica-impregnated cell walls. ; Cassie Cooper, V.; Chang, F.H. (2012). Linda K. Medlin, Allan D. Cembella, in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), 2013. The occurrence of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), caused by the consumption of pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens f. multiseries contaminated mussels, was first recorded in Prince Edward Island, Canada, in 1987 [10, 14]. (Ed.). 6. cells L-1) was recorded at 7 m depth, and the increased abundance persisted for four weeks. (in cells L-1), were determined from 25mL Lugol’s fixed sub-sample by light microscopy (LM), using an inverted light microscope at 100x for large species and 200x magnification for small species 215 (Utermöhl, 1958). WoRMS-ID for taxa: 149151 AlgaeBase URL: https: ... Scholia; Statistics; Search depicted; Media in category "Pseudo-nitzschia" The following 7 files are in this category, out of 7 total. In: Guiry, M.D. In some cases, confusion, memory loss, disorientation, and even coma are reported. Thus, name changes among the taxa abound. On neuropsychological testing several months after the acute intoxication, patients were found to have severe antegrade memory deficits with relative preservation of other cognitive functions; patients also had clinical and electromyographic evidence of pure motor or sensorimotor neuropathy or axonopathy. Domoic acid has been identified in the marine food web in multiple locations in the United States, including the Monterey Bay and Puget Sound areas. The preference of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. In general, health care providers are not legally required to report HAB-related illnesses to local or state health agencies or to the CDC. For the kainate receptors, the efficacy with which DA binds is thought to be the result of a nondesensitization of the channel. (, The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License, From regional or thematic species database, ( Wanda M. Haschek, ... Matthew A. Wallig, in Fundamentals of Toxicologic Pathology (Second Edition), 2010. (USA). Merged citations. The basic structure of domoic acid, a neuroexitatory amino acid and glutamate receptor agonist that is responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning. Project objectives, activities and participations 3. Heat-stable neurotoxic DA is similar in structure to the excitatory dicarboxylic amino acid, kainic acid, and has an antagonistic effect at the glutamate receptor. # Distribution Map: Taxonomic Siblings: PHOTOs: 1: Pseudo-nitzschia seriata f. seriata unaccepted: suggested Pseudo-nitzschia seriata. Algal toxins: some representative examples. 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